Physical and chemical characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrients in the dry period (2023)

PRODUÇÃO ANIMALActa Sci., Anim. Sci. 39 (4) Dec2017https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v39i4.35810 copy

Características físico-químicas do leite de cabras suplementadas com diferentes teores de nutrientes digestíveis totais durante o período seco do ano

Thiago Vinicius Costa Nascimento

    Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, 40170-110, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    *Author for correspondence. E-mail: thiagovcn_vet@hotmail.com

Washington Luiz Gonçalves de Almeida Júnior
    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Edilson Soares Lopes Júnior
    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Daniel Ribeiro Menezes
    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Francesca Silva Dias
    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Matheus Matiuzzi da Costa
    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.
About the authors

    We evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics of raw milk from goats supplemented with levels of Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) in the dry period. Samples from 20 goats were divided into 4 groups, 3 groups received 400g concentrate per animal with different levels of TDN (65, 75 and 85%), and the control group (without concentrate). Four samples of milk were used for each animal, in four sampling periods, which were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. There was no significant difference between the treatments for the parameters of acidity and fat. The diet without concentrate presented higher value for the cryoscopic index. Mean values of the four treatments were within the range set by the Brazilian legislation for all parameters evaluated. The use of concentrate, containing 85% TDN in goat supplementation, was favored the physical and chemical characteristics of the milk during the dry period.

    Keywords:
    concentrate; legislation; raw caprine milk

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as características físico-químicas do leite de cabras suplementadas com teores de Nutrientes Digestíveis Totais (NDT) no período seco do ano. Foram utilizadas amostras de leite de 20 cabras as quais foram divididas em quatro grupos, sendo que três grupos receberam suplementação de 400 g de concentrado por animal com diferentes teores de NDT (65, 75 ou 85%) e o grupo controle que não recebeu concentrado. Foram utilizadas quatro amostras de leite para cada animal, em quatros períodos de coleta, as quais foram submetidas à análise físico-química de acidez titulável, crioscopia e gordura. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros de acidez e gordura. As amostras de leite dos animais que receberam a dieta sem concentrado apresentaram maior valor para o índice crioscópico. As médias das amostras dos quatro tratamentos estavam dentro dos parâmetros fixados pela legislação brasileira para todos os parâmetros avaliados. A utilização de concentrado contendo teor de 85% de NDT na suplementação de cabras favoreceu as características físico-químicas do leite durante o período seco.

    Palavras-chave:
    concentrado; legislação; leite cru caprino

    The Brazilian semi-arid region has about 90% of the country’s goat flock (Silva et al., 2016Silva, D. C. D., Guim, A., Santos, G. R. D. A., Souza, E. J. D. O., Urbano, S. A., Mesquita, F. L. T. D., & Lafayette, E. A. (2016) Intake and digestibility of crossbred goats finished on caatinga grassland receiving feed supplementation during dry season. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal , 17(3), 484-496.), and the breeding of these animals in the northeast region is related to their adaptability to adverse conditions, especially prolonged drought. In this region, the most diverse production systems can be found (Facó et al., 2011Facó, O., Braga Lôbo, R. N., Gouveia, A. M. G., Paiva Guimarães, M. P. S. L. M., Fonseca, J. F., Santos, T. N. M., Silva, M. A. A., Villela, L. C. V. (2011) Breeding plan for commercial dairy goat production systems in southern Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 98(1-3), 164-169.), however the supplementation should always be used to meet the nutritional needs of the animals.

    The caprine agribusiness is expanding in the world, especially in relation to the milk and its derivatives (Yamazi, Moreira, Cavicchioli, Burin, & Nero, 2013Yamazi, A. K., Moreira, T. S., Cavicchioli, V. Q., Burin, R. C. K., & Nero, L. A. (2013). Long cold storage influences the microbiological quality of raw goat milk. Small Ruminant Research , 113(1), 205-210.; Gárcia, Rovira, Boutoial, & López, 2014Gárcia, V., Rovira, S., Boutoial, K., & López, M. B. (2014). Improvements in goat milk quality: a review. Small Ruminant Research , 121(1), 51-57.); among the factors for the growth of the consumption of goat milk and derivatives, are their beneficial effects on human health, which are fully recognized by the scientific community (Gárcia et al., 2014) and is an important part of the economy in many countries (Medeiros et al., 2013Medeiros, E. J. L., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Medeiros, A. N., Bonfim, M. A. D., Batista, A. S. M., Félex, S. S. S., & Madruga, M. S. (2013) Sensory profile and physicochemical parameters of cheese from dairy goats fed vegetable oils in the semiarid region of Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 113(1), 211-218.).

    Goat milk has high biological value and nutritional qualities due to its higher digestibility and its dietary characteristics with smaller diameter fat globules. It presents a chemical composition composed of proteins of high biological value and essential fatty acids, besides its mineral and vitamin content (Haenlein, 2004Haenlein, G. F. W. (2004) Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Research , 51(2), 155-163.; Park, Juárez, Ramos, & Haenlein, 2007Park, Y. W., Juárez, M., Ramos, M., & Haenlein, G. F. W. (2007). Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research , 68(1-2), 88-113.).

    The physical and chemical composition of the milk is directly influenced by the diets given to animals, the forage: concentrate ratio directly interferes with the volume of milk produced as well as the concentrations of the components, especially the fat content (Chilliard et al., 2014Chilliard, Y., Toral, P. G., Shingfield, K. J., Rouel, J., Leroux, C., & Bernard, L. (2014). Effects of diet and physiological factors on milk fat synthesis, milk fat composition and lipolysis in the goat: a short review. Small Ruminant Research, 122(1), 31-37.). The use of concentrate in diets aims to raise the energy and protein concentration of the diet, increasing the total digestible nutrient content of the diet, promoting a greater input of nutrients for milk production, increasing the volume produced as well as increasing the amount of total solids.

    In addition to the great social and economic importance of dairy goat farming for the northeastern semi-arid region, since they are a source of subsistence and sustainability, research must be conducted to attest the quality of the milk produced, and thus contribute effectively to the expression of the product in the consumer market and overcome the barriers that impede the advance of the productive chain (Oliveira et al., 2011Oliveira, C. J. B., Hisrich, E. R., Moura, J. F. P., Givisiez, P. E. N., Costa, R. G., & Gebreyes, W. A. (2011), On farm risk factors associated with goat milk quality in Northeast Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 98(1), 64-69.).

    Studies to set the parameters for goat milk produced, as well as to evaluate the influence of nutrition on the production of goat milk mainly in the semi-arid region of the São Francisco River Valley are very scarce, since producers and consumers do not have information if the use of supplementation allows milk produced and even milk without supplementation to comply with current Brazilian legislation. Thus, this study evaluated the physical and chemical quality of raw milk, from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrient (TDN) in the diet.

    The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Santa Maria da Boa Vista, State of Pernambuco, 8°48’S, 39°49’W, at an altitude of 447 m.

    Twenty mongrel dairy goats with 45.05 ± 5.08 kg, newly calved, multiparous, were homogeneously distributed in four groups: Control Group composed of goats that had access only to Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) pastures, from 8 to 15 hours and after 4 kg/animal of cactus pear (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.) fresh, crushed, in addition to water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The animals of the other three groups were subjected to the same management of the Control Group, and received 400 grams of isoprotein concentrate, containing 20% crude protein and varying TDN (total digestible nutrients) content according to the treatment: Group 65% received concentrate containing 65% TDN, meeting the minimum energy requirement of goats in puerperium, as recommended by National Research Council (NRC 2007); Group 75% received concentrate containing 75% TDN; and Group 85% received concentrate formulated with 85% TDN (Table 1). The concentrate corresponded to approximately 0.89% body weight, the estimated forage: concentrate: ratio was 75:25, with total dry matter intake estimated at 1.6kg corresponding to approximately 3.6% body weight. The average milk production was 0.8 kg milk/animal/day.

    Table 1
    Proportion of ingredients in concentrate and chemical composition of ingredients.

    From the 30th day postpartum, 5 goats from each experimental group were manually milked with pre-and post-milking asepsis according to the manual of good milk production practices described by Vallin et al. (2009Vallin, V. M., Beloti, V., Battaglini, A. P. P., Tamanini, R., Fagnani, R., Angela, H. L., & Silva, L. C. C. (2009). Melhoria da qualidade do leite a partir da implantação de boas práticas de higiene na ordenha em 19 municípios da região central do Paraná. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 30(1), 181-188.). Milk samples were taken every 15 days, with 4 samples per goat, totaling 20 samples. The collected samples were stored in sterile tubes of 100 mL and frozen for the subsequent physical-chemical analyses.

    The determination of titratable acidity and fat concentration (Gerber method) were performed as recommended by Normative Instruction number 68 of the Brazilian legislation published in 2006. The cryoscopic index was analyzed using the Microprocessed Electronic Cryoscope (MK 540 Flex) previously calibrated, where 2.5 mL sample was added to the reading apparatus and its value recorded.

    A completely randomized design was used in a 4X4 factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments (0, 65, 75 and 85% TDN), with 5 replicates and 4 milk collection times (30, 45, 60 and 75 days postpartum), data were tested by ANOVA, and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p<0.05). Statistical analysis was run using SISVAR® (Lavras, Brazil) version 4.5. Pearson correlation between acidity/cryoscopy (p < 0.05) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were run using XLSTAT 7.5.2® software (Addinsoft, New York, NY, USA).

    The acidity was influenced by the days of collection, however it was not affected by the treatments (Table 2). Regarding the time of collection, there was a difference between the initial collection and the others.

    Table 2
    Acidity of milk (ºD) from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN levels.

    Similar results were found in Queiroga et al. (2007Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Costa, R. G., Biscotini, T. M. B., Medeiros, A. N., Madruga, M. S., & Shuler, A. R. P. (2007), Influência do manejo do rebanho, das condições higiênicas da ordenha e da fase de lactação na composição química do leite de cabras Saanen. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 36(2), 430-437.), Sahoo and Walli (2008Sahoo, B., & Walli, T. K. (2008), Effect of feeding undegradable protein with energy on nutrient utilization, milk yield and milk composition of crossbred goats. Small Ruminant Research , 75(1), 36-42.), Araújo et al. (2009Araújo, G. G. L. D., Bade, P. L., Menezes, D. R., Socorro, E. P. D., Sá, J. L., & Oliveira, G. J. C. D. (2009). Substituição da raspa de mandioca por farelo de palma forrageira na dieta de ovinos. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 10(2), 448-459. ) and Silva et al. (2013Silva, G. S., Ferrari, I. S., Silva, C. D. A., Almeida Júnior, W. L. G., Carrijo, K. F., Costa, M. M., … Dias, F. S. (2013). Microbiological and physical-chemical profile of goat milk in the semiarid region of the San Francisco valley. Veterinária Notícias, 19(1). Retrieved from http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/article/ view/22826
    http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/...
    ) who used different percentages of energy in the diet. Differing from Costa et al. (2008Costa, R. G., Mesquita, I. V. U., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Medeiros, A. N., Carvalho, F. F. R., & Beltrão Filho, E. M. (2008). Características químicas e sensoriais do leite de cabras Moxotó alimentadas com silagem de maniçoba. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 37(4), 694-702.), whose study found no variation for the acidity parameter. The results are in accordance with the recommended by the Brazilian law in the normative instruction number 37 of 2000 that determines that the titratable acidity ranges from 0.11 to 0.18% expressed in lactic acid, which correspond to 11 to 18 ºD.

    For the fat parameter, there was no difference between the energy levels tested and also in relation to lactation time (Table 3), corroborating with other studies that evaluated milk fat (Zambom et al., 2005Zambom, M. A., Alcalde, C. R., Martins, E. N., Santos, G. T. D., Macedo, F. D. A. F. D., Horst, J. A., & Veiga, D. R. D. (2005). Curva de lactação e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen recebendo rações com diferentes relações volumoso: concentrado. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 34(6), 2515-2521. ; Costa et al., 2008Costa, R. G., Mesquita, I. V. U., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Medeiros, A. N., Carvalho, F. F. R., & Beltrão Filho, E. M. (2008). Características químicas e sensoriais do leite de cabras Moxotó alimentadas com silagem de maniçoba. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 37(4), 694-702.; Sahoo & Walli, 2008Sahoo, B., & Walli, T. K. (2008), Effect of feeding undegradable protein with energy on nutrient utilization, milk yield and milk composition of crossbred goats. Small Ruminant Research , 75(1), 36-42.; Araújo et al., 2009Araújo, G. G. L. D., Bade, P. L., Menezes, D. R., Socorro, E. P. D., Sá, J. L., & Oliveira, G. J. C. D. (2009). Substituição da raspa de mandioca por farelo de palma forrageira na dieta de ovinos. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 10(2), 448-459. ). Morgan et al.(2003Morgan, F., Massouras, T., Barbosa, M., Roseiro, L., Ravasco, F., Kasndarakis, I., ... Raynal-Ljutovac & K. (2003) Characteristics of goat milk collected from small and medium enterprises in Greece, Portugal and France. Small Ruminant Research , 47(1), 39-49.) obtained from goats reared in France, but according to this same work, breed and breeding conditions can cause a variation in the milk fat content from 5.1 to 3.2%. It is observed that the means of the groups comply with the Brazilian legislation in the normative instruction number 37 of 2000 that determines the minimum content of 2.9% fat in the goat milk.

    Table 3
    Quantification of milk fat from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    There were differences in the means between treatments with different energy levels for the cryoscopic index, in which milk samples from the control group had the highest mean (Table 4). The means of the treatments are in agreement with the standard established by the Brazilian legislation in the normative instruction 37 of 2000, which recommends a range between -0.550°Hovert to -0.585°Hovert, corroborating with Andrade, Souza, Penna and Ferreira (2008Andrade, P. V. D.; Souza, M. R.; Penna, C. F. A. M. & Ferreira, J. M. (2008) Características microbiológicas e físico-químicas do leite de cabra submetido à pasteurização lenta pós-envase e ao congelamento. Ciência Rural, 38(5), 1424-1430.) and differing from the works of Mayer and Fiechter (2012Mayer, H. K., & Fiechter, G. (2012). Physical and chemical characteristics of sheep and goat milk in Austria. International Dairy Journal, 24(2), 57-63.) and Silva et al. (2013Silva, G. S., Ferrari, I. S., Silva, C. D. A., Almeida Júnior, W. L. G., Carrijo, K. F., Costa, M. M., … Dias, F. S. (2013). Microbiological and physical-chemical profile of goat milk in the semiarid region of the San Francisco valley. Veterinária Notícias, 19(1). Retrieved from http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/article/ view/22826
    http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/...
    ).

    (Video) KAGRC in partnership with KLBA webinar on Animal Nutrition.

    Table 4
    Cryoscopy values of goat milk supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    Figure 1 illustrates the correlation between cryoscopy and acidity, in which it was possible to verify an inversely proportional relationship, i.e., as the acidity increases the cryoscopic index decreases.

    Physical and chemical characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrients in the dry period (1)

    Figure 1
    Correlation between acidity (°D) and cryoscopy (°H) of milk from goats supplemented with concentrate of NDT contents.

    In this study, by means of principal components analysis (Figure 2), it was observed that the milk from goats that received concentrate with 85% TDN had better values for acidity and fat.

    Physical and chemical characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrients in the dry period (2)

    Figure 2
    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of TDN in the diet for dairy goats.

    The inclusion of energy sources, especially starch, can affect ruminal fermentation by increasing release of propionic acid in the rumen, produced by the degradation of starch. This is the precursor of lactose in the mammary gland, which through osmolality affects the amount of milk produced, because the concentration of lactose in milk is very little variable. Thus, the higher level of lactose in the mammary gland increases water drainage for milk production, resulting in increased milk volume (Cannas, Pulina, & Francesconi, 2008Cannas, A., Pulina, G., & Francesconi, A. H. D. (2008). Dairy goats feeding and nutrition. Londres, UK: Cabi.).

    Goetsch et al. (2001Goetsch, A. L., Detweiler, G., Sahlu, T., Puchala, R., & Dawson, L. J. (2001). Dairy goat performance with different dietary concentrate levels in late lactation. Small Ruminant Research , 41(2), 117-125. ) explains that the concentration of lactose in milk can be affected by the phases of lactation, as well as the content of fat and proteins, especially to meet the needs of the kids in the different post-partum phases.

    According to the aforementioned, there is a possibility of variation of the data found for the milk acidity, resulting from the possible reduction in lactose concentration in the milk due to the advancement of the lactation curve and that added to the information that this sugar is fermented by microorganisms that transform a lactose molecule into 4 molecules of lactic acid (Kondyli, Svarnas, Samelis, & Katsiari, 2012Kondyli, E., Svarnas, C., Samelis, J., & Katsiari, M. C. (2012) Chemical composition and microbiological quality of ewe and goat milk of native Greek breeds. Small Ruminant Research , 103(2), 194-199.; Fagnani, Battaglini, Beloti, & Araújo, 2016Fagnani, R., Battaglini, A. P. P., Beloti, V., & Araújo, J. P. A. (2016) Estabilidade do leite ao álcool: Ainda pode ser um indicador confiável? Ciência Animal Brasileira, 17(3), 386-394.), which may be one of the possible explanations for the acidity variation along the collections.

    This is a parameter that is directly linked to the milk storage, so the Brazilian legislation in the normative instruction number 37 as of 2000, accepts that raw frozen milk has a higher acidity variation than raw milk without freezing, thus all samples of the treatments presented acidity (Table 2) within the acceptable range by the aforementioned legislation.

    The evaluation of milk acidity is a parameter that associated to others can help in the indirect verification of the microbiological quality and associated to other analyses can be indicative of possible adulterations by water or ammonia (Abrantes, Silva Campêlo, & Silva, 2015Abrantes, M. R., Silva Campêlo, C., & Silva, J. B. A. (2015). Fraude em leite: Métodos de detecção e implicações para o consumidor. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 73(3), 244-251.).

    In this study, the concentration of energy in the concentrate of the treated groups (65, 75 and 85% TDN) (Table 1) had no influence on fat percentage, but Lu, Kawas and Mahgoub (2005Lu, C. D., Kawas, J. R., & Mahgoub, O. G. (2005) Fibre digestion and utilization in goats. Small Ruminant Research , 60(1), 45-52.) and Morand-Fehr, Fedele, Decandia and Frileux (2007Morand-Fehr, P., Fedele, V., Decandia, M., & Frileux, Y. L. (2007). Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Ressearch, 68(1), 20-34.) state that the fat content of goat milk is not related only to the dietary fiber content, but also the dietary fiber effectiveness, besides the energy intake by the goats and the production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen, as mentioned above. It was verified that the supply of concentrate with different TDN contents did not cause changes in the fat content of milk from supplemented goats and neither did the lactation phase or the combination of these factors (Table 3).

    The lack of effect of supplementation of goats with concentrate containing different TDN contents can perhaps be explained by the forage: concentrate ratio in the diet, which was 75:25, not enough to affect the milk fat concentration. Morand-Fehr et al. (2007Morand-Fehr, P., Fedele, V., Decandia, M., & Frileux, Y. L. (2007). Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Ressearch, 68(1), 20-34.) supplied diets with different proportions of concentrate in the total diet: 40-60% and 60-80% and observed that the proportion representing 40 to 60% of the total diet causes a slight drop in the milk fat concentration, while the contents 60-80% cause an abrupt drop in the milk fat concentration.

    The source of energy is another factor that combined with the forage: concentrate ratio may affect milk composition, both in fat content and in milk fatty acid profile (Costa, Queiroga, & Pereira, 2009Costa, R. G., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., & Pereira, R. A. G. (2009) Influência do alimento na produção e qualidade do leite de cabra. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 38(4), 307-321.).

    Cryoscopy is a measure relative to the freezing temperature of milk and is influenced by the elements soluble in milk, especially lactose (Abrantes et al., 2015Abrantes, M. R., Silva Campêlo, C., & Silva, J. B. A. (2015). Fraude em leite: Métodos de detecção e implicações para o consumidor. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 73(3), 244-251.), so it can be inferred that among the main causes for reduction in the cryoscopic index of milk is the availability of energy in the diet of females, in the form of non-fiber carbohydrates, which are the precursors of lactose in milk.

    There was an increased production of lactose by the mammary gland and consequent higher milk production in animals supplemented with concentrates, which are generally rich in non-fiber carbohydrates. Due to this fact, there may have been small variations in lactose concentration in the milk of the supplemented animals, thus explaining the slight but significant difference (p<0.05) in the milk from goats supplemented with concentrate compared with the milk from goats of the control group, without concentrate (Table 4) (Gonzáles et al., 2004Gonzáles, H. L., Fischer, V., Ribeiro, M. E. R., Gomes, J. F., Stumpf Jr., W., & Silva, M. A. (2004) Avaliação da qualidade do leite na bacia leiteira de Pelotas, RS. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 33(6), 1531-1543.; Abrantes et al., 2015Abrantes, M. R., Silva Campêlo, C., & Silva, J. B. A. (2015). Fraude em leite: Métodos de detecção e implicações para o consumidor. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 73(3), 244-251.).

    Vargas et al. (2015Vargas, D. P., Nörnberg, J. L., Scheibler, R. B., Schafhauser Junior, J., Rizzo, F. A., & Wagner, R. (2015), Qualidade e potencial nutracêutico do leite bovino em diferentes sistemas de produção e estações do ano. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 50(12), 1208-1219.) reported that the season may enhance the stress condition of the animals, either by reducing dry matter intake so that the animals cannot reach their daily needs, mainly in energy, or because of the hormonal mechanisms triggered by the stress causing weak immune response to the microorganisms, making them susceptible to diseases, such as mastitis that can also affect the quality and physical and chemical parameters of milk.

    The groups that had access to the diet with the highest energy level presented lower values for the cryoscopic index, which may be related to higher total milk solids production caused by the higher energy supply in the form of non-fiber carbohydrates, possibly raising lactose more specifically, which has a direct influence on the depression of the freezing point of milk, as evidenced by the cryoscopic index (Abrantes et al., 2015Abrantes, M. R., Silva Campêlo, C., & Silva, J. B. A. (2015). Fraude em leite: Métodos de detecção e implicações para o consumidor. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 73(3), 244-251.).

    The inverse correlation detected between the variables acidity x cryoscopic index (Figure 1) can be explained stoichiometrically, as previously reported. The microorganisms, when carrying out the fermentation, transform a molecule of lactose into 4 molecules of lactic acid, thus increasing the quantity of dissolved particles and causing a decrease in the cryoscopic index (Fagnani et al., 2016Fagnani, R., Battaglini, A. P. P., Beloti, V., & Araújo, J. P. A. (2016) Estabilidade do leite ao álcool: Ainda pode ser um indicador confiável? Ciência Animal Brasileira, 17(3), 386-394.).

    According to the principal component analysis, the supplementation of goats with the concentrate containing 85% TDN was responsible for promoting a milk with more suitable physical and chemical characteristics, thus standing out from the other treatments (Figure 2).

    The literature states that animals in dry periods have less availability of forage with adequate quality for milk production, and pastures are characterized by plants containing higher content of neutral and acid detergent fibers as well as lignin (Grant, Kreyling, Dienstbach, Beierkuhnlein, & Jentsch, 2014Grant, K., Kreyling, J., Dienstbach, L. F., Beierkuhnlein, C., & Jentsch, A. (2014). Water stress due to increased intra-annual precipitation variability reduced forage yield but raised forage quality of a temperate grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 186(15), 11-22.; Zhang, Whish, Bell, & Nan, 2017Zhang, Z., Whish, J. P., Bell, L. W., & Nan, Z. (2017). Forage production, quality and water-use-efficiency of four warm-season annual crops at three sowing times in the Loess Plateau region of China. European Journal of Agronomy, 84, 84-94.), resulting in lower intake of crude protein and non-fiber carbohydrates in the diets. Raynal-Ljutovac, Gaborit and Lauret (2005Raynal-Ljutovac, K., Gaborit, P., & Lauret, A. (2005). The relationship between quality criteria of goat milk, its technological properties and the quality of the final products. Small Ruminant Research , 60(1), 167-177.) emphasize that goat supplementation produces better quality milk, which will result in better quality products. As previously explained, the energy from the non-fiber carbohydrates that are degraded in the rumen. The non-fiber carbohydrates become energy source for the growth and microbial proliferation, resulting in the production of propionic acid, which is substrate for the production of lactose and thus can increase the volume of milk, as well as, increase the availability of protein since it will favor the greater contribution of bacteria in the abomasum, and thus increasing the total solids production of the milk.

    The use of concentrate containing 85% TDN in goat supplementation favored the physical and chemical characteristics of the milk during the dry period.

    This study was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq-Brazil) and Foundation for Science and Technological Development of the State of Pernambuco (FACEPE).

    A special acknowledgement to the group of Laboratory of Physiology and Biotecnology of Animal Reproduction (LAFIBRA), Nucleus of Study of Animal Products Origin (NEPOA) both from Federal University of San Francisco Valley.

    • Abrantes, M. R., Silva Campêlo, C., & Silva, J. B. A. (2015). Fraude em leite: Métodos de detecção e implicações para o consumidor. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 73(3), 244-251.

    • Andrade, P. V. D.; Souza, M. R.; Penna, C. F. A. M. & Ferreira, J. M. (2008) Características microbiológicas e físico-químicas do leite de cabra submetido à pasteurização lenta pós-envase e ao congelamento. Ciência Rural, 38(5), 1424-1430.

    • Araújo, G. G. L. D., Bade, P. L., Menezes, D. R., Socorro, E. P. D., Sá, J. L., & Oliveira, G. J. C. D. (2009). Substituição da raspa de mandioca por farelo de palma forrageira na dieta de ovinos. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 10(2), 448-459.

    • Cannas, A., Pulina, G., & Francesconi, A. H. D. (2008). Dairy goats feeding and nutrition Londres, UK: Cabi.

    • Chilliard, Y., Toral, P. G., Shingfield, K. J., Rouel, J., Leroux, C., & Bernard, L. (2014). Effects of diet and physiological factors on milk fat synthesis, milk fat composition and lipolysis in the goat: a short review. Small Ruminant Research, 122(1), 31-37.

    • Costa, R. G., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., & Pereira, R. A. G. (2009) Influência do alimento na produção e qualidade do leite de cabra. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 38(4), 307-321.

    • Costa, R. G., Mesquita, I. V. U., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Medeiros, A. N., Carvalho, F. F. R., & Beltrão Filho, E. M. (2008). Características químicas e sensoriais do leite de cabras Moxotó alimentadas com silagem de maniçoba. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 37(4), 694-702.

    • Facó, O., Braga Lôbo, R. N., Gouveia, A. M. G., Paiva Guimarães, M. P. S. L. M., Fonseca, J. F., Santos, T. N. M., Silva, M. A. A., Villela, L. C. V. (2011) Breeding plan for commercial dairy goat production systems in southern Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 98(1-3), 164-169.

    • Fagnani, R., Battaglini, A. P. P., Beloti, V., & Araújo, J. P. A. (2016) Estabilidade do leite ao álcool: Ainda pode ser um indicador confiável? Ciência Animal Brasileira, 17(3), 386-394.

    • Gárcia, V., Rovira, S., Boutoial, K., & López, M. B. (2014). Improvements in goat milk quality: a review. Small Ruminant Research , 121(1), 51-57.

      (Video) Regulatory, Nutritional, and Analytical Challenges of Novel Animal Food Ingredients

    • Goetsch, A. L., Detweiler, G., Sahlu, T., Puchala, R., & Dawson, L. J. (2001). Dairy goat performance with different dietary concentrate levels in late lactation. Small Ruminant Research , 41(2), 117-125.

    • Gonzáles, H. L., Fischer, V., Ribeiro, M. E. R., Gomes, J. F., Stumpf Jr., W., & Silva, M. A. (2004) Avaliação da qualidade do leite na bacia leiteira de Pelotas, RS. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 33(6), 1531-1543.

    • Grant, K., Kreyling, J., Dienstbach, L. F., Beierkuhnlein, C., & Jentsch, A. (2014). Water stress due to increased intra-annual precipitation variability reduced forage yield but raised forage quality of a temperate grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 186(15), 11-22.

    • Haenlein, G. F. W. (2004) Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Research , 51(2), 155-163.

    • Kondyli, E., Svarnas, C., Samelis, J., & Katsiari, M. C. (2012) Chemical composition and microbiological quality of ewe and goat milk of native Greek breeds. Small Ruminant Research , 103(2), 194-199.

    • Lu, C. D., Kawas, J. R., & Mahgoub, O. G. (2005) Fibre digestion and utilization in goats. Small Ruminant Research , 60(1), 45-52.

    • Mayer, H. K., & Fiechter, G. (2012). Physical and chemical characteristics of sheep and goat milk in Austria. International Dairy Journal, 24(2), 57-63.

    • Medeiros, E. J. L., Queiroga, R. C. R. E., Medeiros, A. N., Bonfim, M. A. D., Batista, A. S. M., Félex, S. S. S., & Madruga, M. S. (2013) Sensory profile and physicochemical parameters of cheese from dairy goats fed vegetable oils in the semiarid region of Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 113(1), 211-218.

    • Morand-Fehr, P., Fedele, V., Decandia, M., & Frileux, Y. L. (2007). Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Ressearch, 68(1), 20-34.

    • Morgan, F., Massouras, T., Barbosa, M., Roseiro, L., Ravasco, F., Kasndarakis, I., ... Raynal-Ljutovac & K. (2003) Characteristics of goat milk collected from small and medium enterprises in Greece, Portugal and France. Small Ruminant Research , 47(1), 39-49.

    • National Research Council [NRC]. (2007). Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

    • Oliveira, C. J. B., Hisrich, E. R., Moura, J. F. P., Givisiez, P. E. N., Costa, R. G., & Gebreyes, W. A. (2011), On farm risk factors associated with goat milk quality in Northeast Brazil. Small Ruminant Research , 98(1), 64-69.

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    • Raynal-Ljutovac, K., Gaborit, P., & Lauret, A. (2005). The relationship between quality criteria of goat milk, its technological properties and the quality of the final products. Small Ruminant Research , 60(1), 167-177.

    • Sahoo, B., & Walli, T. K. (2008), Effect of feeding undegradable protein with energy on nutrient utilization, milk yield and milk composition of crossbred goats. Small Ruminant Research , 75(1), 36-42.

    • Silva, D. C. D., Guim, A., Santos, G. R. D. A., Souza, E. J. D. O., Urbano, S. A., Mesquita, F. L. T. D., & Lafayette, E. A. (2016) Intake and digestibility of crossbred goats finished on caatinga grassland receiving feed supplementation during dry season. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal , 17(3), 484-496.

    • Silva, G. S., Ferrari, I. S., Silva, C. D. A., Almeida Júnior, W. L. G., Carrijo, K. F., Costa, M. M., … Dias, F. S. (2013). Microbiological and physical-chemical profile of goat milk in the semiarid region of the San Francisco valley. Veterinária Notícias, 19(1). Retrieved from http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/article/ view/22826
      » http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/vetnot/article/ view/22826

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    • Zambom, M. A., Alcalde, C. R., Martins, E. N., Santos, G. T. D., Macedo, F. D. A. F. D., Horst, J. A., & Veiga, D. R. D. (2005). Curva de lactação e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen recebendo rações com diferentes relações volumoso: concentrado. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 34(6), 2515-2521.

    • Zhang, Z., Whish, J. P., Bell, L. W., & Nan, Z. (2017). Forage production, quality and water-use-efficiency of four warm-season annual crops at three sowing times in the Loess Plateau region of China. European Journal of Agronomy, 84, 84-94.

    • Publication in this collection
      Dec2017
    • Received
      08Mar2017
    • Accepted
      10May2017

    About the authors

    Thiago Vinicius Costa Nascimento *

    Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, 40170-110, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Washington Luiz Gonçalves de Almeida Júnior

    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Edilson Soares Lopes Júnior

    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    (Video) PROF. EMIOLA"S INAUGURAL LECTURE

    Daniel Ribeiro Menezes

    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Francesca Silva Dias

    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Matheus Matiuzzi da Costa

    Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    *Author for correspondence. E-mail: thiagovcn_vet@hotmail.com

    Figures | Tables

    • Figures (2)
    • Tables (4)

    Figure 1
    Correlation between acidity (°D) and cryoscopy (°H) of milk from goats supplemented with concentrate of NDT contents.

    Figure 2
    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of TDN in the diet for dairy goats.

    Table 1
    Proportion of ingredients in concentrate and chemical composition of ingredients.

    Table 2
    Acidity of milk (ºD) from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN levels.

    Table 3
    Quantification of milk fat from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    Table 4
    Cryoscopy values of goat milk supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    (Video) ADN 2019-02-04 on Terms

    Figure 1 Correlation between acidity (°D) and cryoscopy (°H) of milk from goats supplemented with concentrate of NDT contents.

    Physical and chemical characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrients in the dry period (6)

    Figure 2 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of TDN in the diet for dairy goats.

    Physical and chemical characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with different levels of total digestible nutrients in the dry period (7)

    Table 1 Proportion of ingredients in concentrate and chemical composition of ingredients.

    Concentrate (% MN)
    Ingredients 65% 75% 85%
    Ground corn 17.6 48.0 41.4
    Soybean meal 13.0 16.0 28.2
    Soybean oil 0 0 8.0
    Soybean hull 32.4 0 0
    Sodium chloride 3.0 3.0 3.0
    Mineral salt 3.0 3.0 3.0
    Calcarium 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Urea 2.2 2.0 1.0
    Wheat bran 28.3 27.5 14.9
    Chemical Composition
    Tifton85 Cactus pear Concentrate
    65% 75% 85%
    DM 33.63 9.94 87.51 82.79 84.59
    CP 7.89 2.91 22.44 22.14 22.03
    NDF 61.45 28.98 38.57 22.98 18.23
    ADF 32.09 18.53 22.55 9.86 8.69
    EE 1.48 1.56 2.59 3.64 10.93
    Ash 8.40 16.70 11.03 10.48 10.37
    IVDDM 58.01 62.32 64.83 73.41 68.55
    TDN* 63.22 65.13 65.95 75.63 84.91
    • *Estimated according to literature data.

    Table 2 Acidity of milk (ºD) from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN levels.

    ACIDITY (°D)
    % TDN Time (days) Mean SEM
    30 45 60 75
    0 16.00 12.40 10.00 11.60 12.50 NS 0.63
    65 14.40 11.60 11.00 12.75 12.44 NS 0.48
    75 12.80 12.40 11.60 12.00 12.20 NS 0.48
    85 13.60 14.80 12.80 14.20 13.85 NS 0.67
    Mean 14.20a 12.80b 11.35b 12.64b 12.75 0.45
    • a,b different letters in the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05) by Scott-Knott test. NS: non-significant.

    Table 3 Quantification of milk fat from goats supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    FAT (%)
    % TDN Time (days) Mean SEM
    30 45 60 75
    0 3.76 3.26 3.16 3.78 3.49NS 0.13
    65 2.85 3.32 3.28 3.60 3.26 NS 0.16
    75 3.42 3.70 3.86 3.72 3.67 NS 0.18
    85 3.78 3.82 3.90 3.84 3.83 NS 0.26
    Mean 3.45 NS 3.52 NS 3.55 NS 3.73 NS 3.56 0.10
    • NS: non-significant.

    Table 4 Cryoscopy values of goat milk supplemented with concentrate of TDN contents.

    CRYOSCOPY (°H)
    % TDN Time (days) Mean SEM
    30 45 60 75
    0 -0.558 -0.551 -0.555 -0.563 -0.557b 0.002
    65 -0.570 -0.572 -0.567 -0.569 -0.570a 0.002
    75 -0.569 -0.569 -0.567 -0.565 -0.567a 0.002
    85 -0.569 -0.573 -0.572 -0.571 -0.571a 0.002
    Mean -0.566 NS -0.566 NS -0.565 NS -0.567 NS -0.566 0.001
    • a,b different letters in the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05) by the Scott-Knott test. NS: non-significant.

    How to cite

    (Video) NSA and Rumenco: Supplementing Forage

    FAQs

    What is chemical composition of goat milk? ›

    The chemical qualities of goat's milk can be summarized as follows: Contains sugar and oligosaccharide fractions similar to human milk. Milk contains 13% less lactose than cow's milk and 41% less than human milk.
    ...
    Minerals.
    ComponentGoatCow
    Fe (mg)0.070.08
    Cu (mg)0.050.06
    Mn (mg)0.0320.02
    Zn (mg)0.560.53
    8 more rows
    2 Oct 2019

    What is the characteristic advantage of goat milk over the other types of milk? ›

    Compared to standard cow milk, soy milk, or nut milks, goat milk has more protein per serving. And, the protein in goat milk appears to be more digestible, meaning your body can use it more easily. Goat milk also contains significantly more protein than almond milk or rice milk.

    What are the properties of goat milk? ›

    Goat milk packs a hearty 8 grams of protein per cup. It's loaded with calcium and other minerals: Goat milk is naturally an excellent source of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Additionally, goat milk contains the precursor to vitamin A in the milk fat which allows it to be readily bioavailable.

    What is the nutritional value of goats milk? ›

    Goat milk, on average, contains 13.2% total solids, consisting of 4.5% fat, 3.6% protein, 4.3% lactose, and 0.8% minerals, indicating that it has slightly more total solid, fat, total protein, casein, minerals, and less lactose than cow and human milks.

    What is the chemical composition of milk? ›

    In general, the gross composition of cow's milk in the U.S. is 87.7% water, 4.9% lactose (carbohydrate), 3.4% fat, 3.3% protein, and 0.7% minerals (referred to as ash). Milk composition varies depending on the species (cow, goat, sheep), breed (Holstein, Jersey), the animal's feed, and the stage of lactation.

    What is milk write physico chemical properties and composition of milk? ›

    Composition of cows' milk
    Main constituentLimits of variationMean value
    Water85.5 – 89.587.5
    Total solids10.5 – 14.513.0
    Fat2.5 – 6.03.9
    Proteins2.9 – 5.03.4
    2 more rows

    What are the characteristics of high quality milk? ›

    Good-quality raw milk has to be free of debris and sediment; free of off-flavours and abnormal colour and odour; low in bacterial count; free of chemicals (e.g., antibiotics, detergents); and of normal composition and acidity. The quality of raw milk is the primary factor determining the quality of milk products.

    Why is goats milk easier to digest than cow's milk? ›

    Not only does goat milk contain less lactose, but its fat content is also much simpler for human digestion than cow milk. This means that the fat globules in goat milk are smaller and easier for our milk fat-dissolving enzyme — lipase— to break into smaller pieces as they pass through our gut.

    What is the major difference between goat's milk and cow's milk? ›

    Goat milk is an excellent source of protein, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium and vitamin A. When you look at the nutritional qualities of goat milk, it is higher in fat and calories when compared to cow milk, and it also contains more protein, vitamins and minerals.

    Why is goats milk easier to digest? ›

    Goat's milk is easier to digest.

    Goat's milk has smaller fat globules as well as higher levels of medium chain fatty acids. This means that during digestion, each fat globule and individual fatty acid will have a larger surface-to-volume ratio resulting in a quicker and easier digestion process.

    What nutrients are lacking in goat milk? ›

    Goat's milk is known to be deficient in vitamin D, vitamin B12, iron and especially folate. Infants younger than six months of age need 65 μg/day of folate (the recommended daily allowance increases with age). Goat's milk contains 6 μg/L of folate (breast milk and cow's milk contain approximately 45 μg/L to 50 μg/L).

    What is the importance of goat milk? ›

    Goat milk is a powerhouse of protein, healthy fats, vitamins, iron, and other essential nutrients. It keeps your bones and teeth stronger, due to its high calcium content. It helps in providing sufficient energy to a growing child.

    What vitamins and minerals are in goats milk? ›

    Goat milk is an adequate source of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin [11, 36, 38]. However, it presents low levels of folates, as well as vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin C, and vitamin D [11, 13] (Table 5).

    Why does goat milk taste different? ›

    Goat's milk, first of all, gets its flavor from the presence of short- and medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids that give the milk its particular flavor. It's that grassy, goaty, earthy flavor that you get mainly when you are eating goat cheese. It's very different from cow's milk.

    What is more nutritious and healthier goat milk or cow's milk? ›

    Ounce for ounce, goat's milk stacks up favorably against cow's milk, particularly when it comes to protein (9 grams [g] versus 8 g) and calcium (330 g versus 275–300 g). Research also suggests that goat's milk may enhance the body's ability to absorb important nutrients from other foods.

    What are physical properties of milk? ›

    The physical properties of milk include fluid flow, mixing and churning, emulsification and homogenization, as well as heat transfer processes such as pasteurization, sterilization, evaporation, dehydration, chilling, and freezing.

    What is the chemical reaction of milk? ›

    In all types of heat treatment, the Maillard reaction occurs in milk. The Maillard reaction (nonenzymatic glycation) is a chemical reaction between amino group and carbonyl group; it is the extremely complex reaction that usually takes place during food processing or storage.

    What are the characteristics of milk? ›

    The physical characteristics such as moisture, total solids, specific gravity, pH, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity are important parameters in studying the physicochemical compositions and nutritional aspects of milk.

    What are 5 physical properties of milk? ›

    13 Physical Properties of Milk
    • Density.
    • Viscosity.
    • Freezing Point.
    • Acid-base Equilibria.
    • Optical Properties.

    What is the importance of knowing the physico chemical properties in milk processing? ›

    An understanding of these properties is important in the technological and engineering design and operation of milk processes and processing equipment, the design of modern methods of milk analysis, the determination of milk microstructures and the elucidation of complex chemical reactions that occur in milk.

    Is milk physical or chemical property? ›

    The principal physical properties of milk include its density, redox properties, colligative properties, surface activity buffering capacity, rheological behaviour, conductivity, thermal properties and color.

    What are the important properties of milk which affect the processing? ›

    It has high protein content (50-70%), and a lower mineral content (30-40%). required processing temperature, the temperature of the heating medium has to be increased to an undesirable extent. Both types (1 & 2) of deposit contain negligible amount of fat (about 5%), and protein and minerals are the main constituents.

    What are 5 factors that affect milk production? ›

    Genetic background, climate, diseases, feeding, year and season of calving have been reported to affect milk production, lactation length and dry period [2, 3]. Breed, age, stage of lactation, parity and milking frequency also influence performance production [2, 3].

    What is the most digestible milk? ›

    Sheep milk's protein is more readily digested and its fats are more readily converted into energy compared to cow milk, a New Zealand study has shown.

    Why do we drink milk from cows and not goats or other mammals? ›

    Cows — especially those that have been bred for milking — produce more than seven gallons of milk every 24 hours. So while reindeer milk or goat milk might make sense for a herder providing only for their family, it's much easier to make a living with the amount of milk produced by cows.

    Is goat milk hard to digest? ›

    Goat's milk, like cow's milk, contains a sugar called “lactose” that can be difficult for people to digest, resulting in symptoms such as cramps, gas, bloating, and vomiting.

    What type of milk is goat milk? ›

    Goat milk is real dairy.

    Dairy refers to milk produced by an animal, specifically a mammal such as goats, sheep, cows or even camels and water buffalo. All mammalian milk is considered dairy but there are differences in butterfat content, lactose, and protein.

    What is the difference between goat milk and sheep milk? ›

    Sheep milk contain double the amount of butterfat in comparison to goat's and cow's milk. The fat globules in sheep milk are smaller than those in either cow or goat milk. Therefore the milk is more homogeneous. The smaller fat globules are more easily digested and are less likely to cause high cholesterol.

    Why is goat milk better than sheep milk? ›

    Goat's milk is also higher in zinc and selenium, while sheep's milk is higher in vitamin B12, vitamin C, folate and magnesium than either cow or goat's milk.

    How long does goat milk take to digest? ›

    Goat milk digests in about 20 minutes while cow's milk takes 2 or 3 hours to digest. Hard to digest food makes the stomach overwork. This then can cause harm to our digestive system and even beyond into other systems.

    Which milk is easiest to digest? ›

    Several animal and human studies show that A2 milk is more easily digested than A1 milk.

    Does goat milk help with digestion? ›

    The protein composition of goats' milk also allows it to form a softer curd during digestion, which may assist with your digestive health and comfort.

    What is dry matter intake in dairy goats? ›

    Average dry matter intake of lactating dairy goats is 5% of body weight. This means that goats have a faster turnover rate and shorter retention time compared to dairy cows.

    What are the nutrients required by goat and their role? ›

    Nutrient Requirements. Meat goats require nutrients for body maintenance, growth, reproduction, pregnancy, and production of products such as meat, milk and hair. The groups of nutrients that are essential in goat nutrition are water, energy, protein, minerals and vitamins.

    Which nutrients are lacking in milk? ›

    Vitamin C is not found in milk, it is an essential vitamin, which is needed by the body.

    What are the health benefits of raw goat's milk? ›

    High in Calcium and Fatty Acids

    Raw Goat Milk has high levels of medium-chain fatty acids— 30-35% vs. 15-20 percent in other milk alternatives. These fatty acids provide an energy boost that isn't stored as body fat, help lower cholesterol, and can even help with conditions like heart disease and intestinal disorders.

    What kind of animal that has a milk with higher nutritional value? ›

    Sheep milk is among the highest nutritious milk in the world currently. Camel and buffalo milk are the only kinds of milk that can be compared with its nutritional value. The solid content of sheep milk is twice that of cow's milk or goat milk, which is very suitable for making cheese.

    What is the composition of goat milk? ›

    2 COMPOSITION OF GOAT MILK
    ComponentGoatHuman
    Total protein (g/100 mL)3.30.9
    Casein (% of total protein)8327
    Whey (% of total protein)1773
    Lactose (g/100 mL)4.16.5
    10 more rows
    12 Jan 2021

    What is the protein in goats milk? ›

    The composition of goat milk protein is similar to that of breast milk and its casein fraction is mostly comprised of β-casein, followed by αs-casein (αs1- and αs2-casein) and κ-casein (Bernacka, 2011). Milk protein primarily contains two types of β-casein: A1 and A2 (Jianqun et al., 2016).

    What enzymes are in goat milk? ›

    Chymosin, the major component of rennet (milk clotting enzyme), is an acid protease produced in the fourth stomach of milk-fed ruminants including goat and sheep in the form of an inactive precursor prochymosin.

    Why does goat milk have an after taste? ›

    So why does goat milk taste bad? The characteristic “goaty” flavor springs from the presence of the enzyme caproic acid, strengthening taste as milk ages. Along with caprylic acid and capric acid, these three fatty acids account for 15% of the fat in a goat's milk. By comparison, cow's milk contains 7%.

    What is the smell of goat milk? ›

    Carboxylic acids were characterized by strong odor notes and described by fatty, rancid buttery, ripened cheese, whey-flowery, cheesy-musty, rancid buttery, and soapy odor notes. Most of these components are prevalent as potent odorants in goat milk (Siefarth and Buettner, 2014) and cheese (Zabaleta et al., 2016).

    Why is my goat milk bitter? ›

    A Vitamin B12 deficiency can be a source of bitter milk. B12 is created in the rumen and helps the goat metabolize feed.

    Which milk is the healthiest and why? ›

    Low- or non-fat dairy — Skim or 1% milk contains all the protein, vitamins and minerals that whole milk contains, but it has much less saturated fat. This type of milk is typically more heart-healthy than full-fat milk.

    Is goat milk more ethical than cow milk? ›

    Myth: Goat's milk is more humane than cow's milk.

    When humans decide to bottle up and sell the goat's milk for their own consumption, they exploit mother and baby goats in a way that can be outright cruel. This exploitation starts when farmers artificially inseminate young female goats, forcing them into pregnancy.

    Which acid is present in goat milk? ›

    Three of the medium chain fatty acids (caproic, caprilyc, and capric) have actually been named after goats, due to their predominance in goat milk. They contribute to 15% of the total fatty acid content in goat milk in comparison to 5% in cow milk (Haenlein, 1993).

    Is goat milk acidic or basic? ›

    Like cow's milk, the pH of goat milk depends on how it's treated. Raw goat milk is alkaline-forming in the body. However, most goat milk available in stores is pasteurized and acidic-forming.

    What is the pH of goat milk? ›

    For the control samples, the pH value of raw Alpine goat milk was approximately 6.7 (pH 6.7 S and pH 6.7 F) in the range of 6.6–6.8. The titratable acidity in both pH 6.7 S and pH 6.7 F was 0.15%.

    How is goat milk different from cow milk? ›

    Nutritionally, goat milk is slightly higher in fat and calories, but also contains more vitamins, minerals, and protein than cow's milk. They differ more significantly in terms of taste.

    Is goats milk high in acid? ›

    For every unit decrease in titratable acidity was 0.16% l.a. Fresh goat's milk was more acidic than fresh cow's and buffalo's milk. Goat's milk started to curdle at pH values ranging from 5.45 to 6.15 with titratable acidity values ranging from 0.210 and 0.285% l.a.

    Which vitamin is deficient in goat milk? ›

    Goat's milk is known to be deficient in vitamin D, vitamin B12, iron and especially folate. Infants younger than six months of age need 65 μg/day of folate (the recommended daily allowance increases with age). Goat's milk contains 6 μg/L of folate (breast milk and cow's milk contain approximately 45 μg/L to 50 μg/L).

    Does goat milk have the same pH as humans? ›

    Goat milk is routinely described as a “natural” skin care product — in the best way. “Goat milk has the same pH as human skin. So, when you cleanse with a goat milk product, you do not disturb the acid mantle, or the skin's natural microbiome,” says Ridge.

    What causes high pH in milk? ›

    This occurs as bacteria in milk convert the sugar lactose into lactic acid. The first milk produced by a cow contains colostrum, which lowers its pH. If the cow has the medical condition mastitis, the pH of the milk will be higher or more basic.

    Is goat milk good for pH balance? ›

    It Soothes, Balances & Renews

    Goat milk helps to maintain your pH balance, keeping your skin barrier at a healthy level, without overwhelming it. Not only can it stabilize your skin microbiome, but also soothe over irritated skin caused by overwhelmed pH levels.

    Is goat milk less acidic than cow milk? ›

    Unlike cow's milk, goat milk contains a lower lactose and acidic content. While cow's milk will take your body about two hours to digest, it takes your body approximately 30 minutes to absorb the nutrients in goat milk.

    What is the difference between goat milk and human milk? ›

    Goat milk has higher protein levels than other similar baby formulas, and is also higher in protein than human milk. Goat milk contains minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. With all these apparent health benefits, you may be wondering if it would be safe to feed your baby goat milk.

    Why is goat milk called the universal milk? ›

    Goat Milk is known as the “universal milk,” due to its ability to be easily digested by a wide variety of mammals—including dogs and cats!

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