Factors Influencing Participation In Physical Activity Physical Education Essay (2022)

Paper Type: Free EssaySubject: Physical Education
Wordcount: 1816 wordsPublished: 1st Jan 2015

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When promoting physical activity to improve and maintain health, the socio-environmental influences that influence participation have to be taken into consideration. Physical activity is very important to public health as it has physical and mental health benefits (Kruk, 2009). It is crucial for prevention of disease but also improves a person’s health and well-being and there are social benefits (Kruk, 2009). Chronic diseases such as diabetes, stroke and coronary heart disease are especially a problem due the high number of physical inactivity (Department of Health, 2004). Adults who are physically active have up to 50% less chance of having chronic disease (Department of Health, 2004). Obesity is also a major problem in the United Kingdom and this could be reduced if there was more participation in physical activities. It would help with fat loss and improve fitness and health (Department of Health, 2004).

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The recommended amount of physical activity is a minimum of thirty minutes a day, five days a week. However, only 35% of males and 24% of females manage to complete this recommendation (Miles, 2007). This may be due to a change in lifestyle because compared to thirty years ago there are less manual jobs and a lot of everyday activities have been improved through use of machines therefore people can be less active (e.g. housework, shopping etc) (Department of Health, 2004). Physical activity is when a person expends energy above normal resting level and there are two types of activities; Usual and intentional (Kruk, 2009). Intentional activity refers to activities that are not normal daily activities, such as dressing or walking, but ones that are during leisure time (Kruk, 2009). This essay will look at some of the different factors that influence people to take part in physical activity and how these factors vary across different populations.

One factor to consider when looking at influences on physical activity is upbringing and family life. The interaction with family members and social groups when children are young plays a part in their interest in physical activity later on in life (Dagkas and Stithi, 2007). Social economic factor can determine how much a child can participate in physical activity as it has been shown that middle or upper class families take part as they see it as routine and can afford to take their children to classes and different activities (Dagkas and Stithi, 2007). In the study carried out by Dakgas and Stathi (2007) they found that depending on a child’s financial support, encouragement from family members and environment, participation in physical varies. They compared two schools; school A which was in the suburbs and 78% of pupils left with five or more grades at A*-C level compared to a school in the city (school B) which had 40% of pupils leaving with five or more A*-C level grades. They interviewed 16 year olds and asked them about what activities they take part in, if their parents help them out and school support. They found that the pupils from school A took part in many more activities in school but also outside of school hours. They had opportunities to join lots of different clubs (e.g. hockey and skiing) due to the school having links with sports clubs (Dagkas and Stithi, 2007). Pupils from school B didn’t have many opportunities and only participated in physical activity during school time. The school didn’t have playing fields so the variety of sports was limited. When asked about financial support many pupils from school A agreed that without their parents paying for their sessions or kit they wouldn’t be able to take part. Pupils from school B said they couldn’t afford to attend clubs as their parents didn’t have a lot of spare money (Dagkas and Stithi, 2007). The family encouragement was also very little as pupils said they didn’t do activities with their family at the weekends, they would hang around the park with their friends. This compares to school A, who said they go for walks or take part in activities with their families at the weekends. They also mentioned that because of other members of the family participating in sports this encouraged them to take part; this motivation was not the same for pupils from school B (Dagkas and Stithi, 2007). The study shows that a person’s upbringing can have a major effect on attitudes to physical activity and there are many factors that play a part such as living environment and occupation in adult life.

There is an influence of living environment on a person’s participation in physical activity and this is mainly due to the accessibility of facilities (Frost et. al, 2010).There is more of a positive attitude to physical activity if people can walk, in a safe and short distance to facilities (Frost et. al, 2010). People in rural areas are less likely to take part in physical activity as they do not have facilities close by compared to those who live in suburban or urban areas (Sallis et. al, 1990). There are two reasons as to why having facilities nearby encourage people to exercise. The first is that they provide visual stimuli; if a person has to walk past a leisure centre everyday then they are going to think more about taking part in physical activity. It also means that participating in physical activity becomes a social norm, making more people more likely to take part (Sallis et. al, 1990). If there are facilities close by it also decreases the obstacle of travelling and the travel time (Sallis et. al, 1990). The number of facilities in rural areas is a factor that influences participation and also why there is a greater chance of getting cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes (Frost et. al, 2010). Where a person lives may be due to their job and this can also have an impact on participation in physical activity.

Occupation influences participation in physical activity as it has been shown that your type of job can affect how much physical activity you do (Burton and Turrell, 2000). Blue collar workers (e.g. Drivers, labourers, machine operators etc.) have higher mortality rates and more risk of having cardiovascular disease compared to white collar (e.g. Clerks, sales people) and professional workers (e.g. manager). White collar and professional works have been shown to do more physical activity in their leisure time. This may be due to reasons such as blue collar workers may live further away from work so have to add travel time on to their leisure time and they may also have more work responsibilities to take care of (Burton and Turrell, 2000). They also might not have control over when and for how long they work compared to a manager who can have a say in their shifts. There has also been evidence to suggest that most in most workplaces people can spend up to around a half of their time sitting (Kirk and Rhodes, 2011). It is also a similar situation during leisure time when people watch television, using a computer or drive to places, meaning that people spend most of their day being inactive. This shows that their needs to be a change in lifestyle, particularly in workplaces. People should have time during their day to do half an hour of physical activity whether it is at work and during leisure time as physical activity plays an important role in prevention and treatment of hypokinetic diseases.

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(Video) Benefits of Physical Activity for Youth

There has been research looking at how physical activity can help with the treatment of hypokinetic diseases such cardiovascular disease (CVD) and obesity. It has been shown that regular physical activity that uses large muscle groups is very important to treating CVD (Briffa et. al, 2006). Physical activity improves symptoms and functionality capacity, for example, reduces recurrent angina symptoms and also helps reduce breathlessness. Taking part in regular physical activity also help with recovering patients in daily activities as it builds up their strength (Briffa et. al, 2006). Survivors of myocardial infarction are 2.5% less likely to die if they are physical active (Briffa et. al, 2006) and this shows that doing even the minimal amount of physical activity is going to benefit a person in their life. Obesity can also be treated with the use of physical activity. To maintain body weight energy intake would have equal the amount of energy being expended and therefore to lose weight the amount of energy expenditure, by doing physical activity, needs to be greater which creating an energy deficit (Jakicic and Otto, 2005). To get the best long-term weight loss it has been found that there needs to be a high level of physical activity. This means instead of the recommended 30 minutes a day, a person would have to take part in 60mins of high intensity physical activity to achieve long-term weight loss (Jakicic and Otto, 2005). However it is not achieved just from physical activity, diet also needs to be made healthier to ensure maximum weight loss. This is why it is important to influence participation in physical activity as there could be a major decrease in obesity if people knew how important it was.

It has been shown that there are many factors influencing participation physical activity and that what work for one person might not suit another. When looking at the factors that influence young people it is shown there needs to be a change for schools and pupils from a lower class area as they don’t have the opportunities to participate that pupils from an upper class area may have. Schools could have after-school clubs where people from the local gym or football club hold classes for a smaller fee to get the children to take part in a variety of activities. Living environment also influences participation as if facilities are not available people do not take part in any kind of physical activity. People from rural areas should be encouraged to use the environment they have near-by to go for walks or cycles or hold classes in the local school or town hall. This means they don’t have to travel in to an urban area and will cost less money. Many people’s lifestyle now involves working a lot of hours, mostly in an office and having no leisure time to take part in physical activity and this is a big problem. There needs to be an attitude change in how people look at physical activity. It should not be seen as a chore but something that they will benefit from. If people knew how much their health would benefit from doing as little as 30 minutes of physical activity, five times week, then maybe more people would rethink sitting in front of the television when they get home from work. Once people learn the importance of physical activity then there could be a massive reduction in the amount of people diagnosed with hypokinetic diseases and a much healthier country.

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FAQs

What are the factors influencing participation in physical activity? ›

Other factors impacting on physical activity participation include lack of social support, lack of time, lack of enjoyment, having children, having health problems and feeling self- conscious (Chau 2007).

How is participation in physical activity? ›

Physical activity participation describes “experiences in physically demanding movement, sport, game, or recreational play that results in energy expenditure and perceptions of communal involvement.” It can be qualified by: (1) Level: frequency of attendance and intensity of physical exertion [e.g., Ref.

What are the factors that influence community participation? ›

Among the possible factors that are expected to promote community participation in development on the community driven approach include material (benefits), development interest, development need, previous development experience, wanting to belong, to serve the community, project meets needs and peer pressure.

What are factors influencing children's physical participation? ›

Individual influences
  • Perceived enjoyment. Most children expressed that they preferred to engage in PA that they perceived to be enjoyable. ...
  • Perceived health benefits and expectations of rewards. ...
  • Perceived time constraints. ...
  • Apathy towards physical activity.

What are factors that affect physical fitness and performance? ›

10 Lifestyle Factors Affecting Your Fitness Results
  • JOB STRESS. While exercise is a great way to blow off steam after a tough day, prolonged, elevated stress levels can lead to injury and burnout. ...
  • SLEEP. ...
  • FINDING BALANCE. ...
  • DIET. ...
  • FAMILY OBLIGATIONS. ...
  • WORK CAPACITY. ...
  • INJURY AND/OR ILLNESS. ...
  • YOUR AGE.

What are the four factors that influence physical fitness? ›

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PHYSICAL FITNESS

(i) Heredity. (ii) Nutrition. (iii) Regular exercises. (iv) Body type.

What are the factors you need to consider before performing an exercise? ›

  • Pre-exercise screening. ...
  • You may need to visit your doctor before starting physical activity. ...
  • Setting goals for physical activity. ...
  • Start physical activity gently. ...
  • Stretching, warming up and cooling down. ...
  • Stretching suggestions. ...
  • Wear comfortable clothes and shoes for physical activity.

How does a sport influence the physical activity participation of the community? ›

Communities that participate in sport and recreation develop strong social bonds, are safer places and the people who live in them are generally healthier and happier than places where physical activity isn't a priority. Sport and recreation builds stronger, healthier, happier and safer communities.

What is the importance of physical activity participation during this pandemic? ›

Regular physical activity benefits both the body and mind. It can reduce high blood pressure, help manage weight and reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and various cancers - all conditions that can increase susceptibility to COVID-19.

How will participation help you in improving your physical body? ›

If you participate in regular moderate physical activity, you can expect to enjoy numerous health and social benefits, including: reduced risk of heart disease and stroke. reduced risk of developing high blood pressure. reduced blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure.

How important is the factor of participation for community organization? ›

It also helps people to build and improve their confidence. Community participation paves the way for self-development and contribution. The sense of contributing, for instance, participation in a project which contributes to the society can give you a sense of pleasure and meaningfulness.

What are the key factors of participatory development? ›

In the participatory development of the organic sector five elements appear to play a key role: ownership, heterogeneity, sharing knowledge and experience, value driven and a system approach.

What are the factors which influence the sports management? ›

Some of these factors are explained below:
  • Sport Businesses. ...
  • Government Policy. ...
  • Involvement of Media. ...
  • Economic Factors. ...
  • Changing Demographics. ...
  • Technological factors. ...
  • Copyright and Disclaimer | About the author Leo Isaac | Email Webmaster.

What factors influence our decisions about what physical activities to engage in and how physically active to be? ›

The two factors that influence our decisions regarding what physical activities we shall engage in and how physically active we shall be include: our social environments and our personal circumstances.

What are the factors that affect physical health? ›

Factors known to influence physical and mental health outcomes in older adults include race, gender, age, amount and type of physical activity, chronic disease, and adaptation to physical and emotional stressors.

What is the most important factor in improving fitness level? ›

Exercise, for the purpose of physical conditioning, must be safe. Safety is the most important factor to consider when designing and performing an exercise program for the purpose of improving both health and fitness.

What are the factors that hinder you in accomplishing your physical activity essay? ›

Personal Barriers
  • insufficient time to exercise.
  • inconvenience of exercise.
  • lack of self-motivation.
  • non-enjoyment of exercise.
  • boredom with exercise.
  • lack of confidence in their ability to be physically active (low self-efficacy)
  • fear of being injured or having been injured recently.

What are several factors in the environment that can affect physical fitness level? ›

Environmental Factors Affecting Physical Fitness
  • Computers, Television and Technology. ...
  • Transportation. ...
  • Simply Being Busy. ...
  • Climate Change and Pollution.
  • Diseases. ...
  • Poverty and Lack of Access to Health Care.
17 Aug 2022

Do factors that influence physical fitness include heredity behavior and environment? ›

Factors that influence physical fitness include heredity, behavior, and environment... True.

Why is it important that we prepare ourselves before doing and starting physical activities? ›

Getting a good warm up before and a cool down after working out can help prevent injury and get the blood and muscles ready to perform. Adding stretches to a workout routine can help improve balance and flexibility. Staying hydrated is an essential part of conducting a healthy physical fitness routine.

What factors should be considered when designing a personal fitness program essay? ›

What factors should I consider when creating an exercise program?
  • Frequency: the number of activity sessions each week.
  • Intensity: how high of a demand the activity will be.
  • Time: how long the activity session will be.
  • Type: the mode of activity (walking, dancing, lifting weights, yoga, etc.)

What factors should be considered when designing a personal fitness program Why answer? ›

The exercise frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT principle) are key components of any fitness plan or routine. An individual's goals, present fitness level, age, health, skills, interest, and availability of time are among the factors to consider in developing a personal physical activity plan.

What are the factors which influence the sports management? ›

Some of these factors are explained below:
  • Sport Businesses. ...
  • Government Policy. ...
  • Involvement of Media. ...
  • Economic Factors. ...
  • Changing Demographics. ...
  • Technological factors. ...
  • Copyright and Disclaimer | About the author Leo Isaac | Email Webmaster.

How does access to facilities influence participation in sport and physical activity? ›

Those with easy access to sports facilities were 1.16 times more likely to participate in physical activity than those without easy access to sports facilities (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.13–1.20). Less physical activity was also observed among low-income groups than among high-income groups.

How do social factors affect participation in sport? ›

Participation in sport is influenced by many social factors, such as people's age, gender, disability, and ethnicity and by social groups. It is important not to stereotype individuals based on social factors.

How does socioeconomic status influence participation in physical activity? ›

There is evidence that higher SES neighbourhoods have significantly more PA facilities than lower SES neighbourhoods, thus providing more opportunities to be physically active [9]. Furthermore, low SES neighbourhoods were found to have significantly fewer free-for-use facilities than high SES neighbourhoods [9].

What are the factors that will encourage you to play sports? ›

Common Motivations
  • Fun. Many choose to play a sport because they enjoy it. ...
  • Love of the Game. For other athletes, deep passion is what drives them: they just love the game. ...
  • Friendship. Some athletes are more socially motivated. ...
  • Being Part of a Team. Some are motivated by being part of a team. ...
  • Desire To Be The Best.
18 Sept 2012

How do you make people participate more in sports? ›

How to Increase Participation in Athletics at Your School
  1. Try to Develop a Winning Program – or at Least a Competitive One. ...
  2. Choose the Right Coaches. ...
  3. Respect the Time Your Students Have to Spend on Extracurricular Activities. ...
  4. Get Non-Athletes Involved, And Make Sure You Boost Attendance.
27 Dec 2018

How can participation in sport and or physical activity make the world a better and happier place? ›

Communities that participate in sport and recreation develop strong social bonds, are safer places and the people who live in them are generally healthier and happier than places where physical activity isn't a priority.

How does education affect participation in sports? ›

The results also indicated that the higher the education levels are, the higher the participation rates in physical activities are, which means that physical education at school helps students gain regular physical activity habits The study also showed that most people were engaged in sports for health reasons (73.1%).

What environmental factor can affect your physical activity? ›

Background. The physical activity levels of children are influenced by environmental factors such as access to public recreation space and infrastructure, access to sidewalks, neighborhood crime and area deprivation [1-3].

What is social influence in physical activity? ›

Social influence is one of the factors associated with practice of physical activity in adolescents,1 and is characterized by the influence exerted by parents, friends, teachers, and relatives, among other groups, on physical activity.

How culture influence physical activity? ›

Research suggests that a person's culture shapes their attitudes toward and involvement in physical activity, a view that was confirmed by the participants in our focus groups.

What four factors influence learning of physical skills? ›

Specifically, the review focuses on four factors that have been shown to enhance the learning of motor skills: observational practice; the learner's focus of attention; feedback, and self-controlled practice.

How does poverty affect participation in sport? ›

Poor health among low-income households inhibits exercise, with parental ill health impacting directly on children's levels of physical activity. Few free sporting opportunities exist outside school, and charges are often unaffordable. Only a limited range of sports is available and some sports are expensive.

How does self esteem and self confidence influence participation in physical activity? ›

Self-efficacy was significantly positively correlated with self-esteem and sports participation. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with sports participation. Body image had a direct effect on sports participation, with an effect value of 0.124.

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