Angiomyolipoma of Kidney (2023)

Diseases & Conditions

Approved by

Krish Tangella MD, MBA, FCAP Pathology May 15, 2018

Angiomyolipoma of Kidney (2)

Microscopic pathology image showing angiomyolipoma.

What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms)

  • AML of Kidney
  • Kidney AML
  • Renal Angiomyolipoma

What is Angiomyolipoma of Kidney? (Definition/Background Information)

  • An angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor that is a mixture of blood vessels (angio-), smooth muscles (myo-), and fat (or lipoma). The tumor is seen among a wide age range of adults and can occur at various locations in the body. But, the most common location is the kidney
  • Angiomyolipoma of Kidney (or Renal Angiomyolipoma) is stated to be among the most common benign tumor of the kidney. The tumor may be present in the cortex or medulla of the kidney
  • The kidney consists of 2 zones; the cortex and the medulla. The cortex is the peripheral or outer portion of the kidney, and the medulla is the central or inner portion of the kidney
  • Angiomyolipoma of Kidney can be associated with a syndrome (tuberous sclerosis) in some cases, called syndromic Angiomyolipoma of Kidney; or in a majority of cases, it may not be associated with a genetic disorder, called non-syndromic Angiomyolipoma of Kidney
  • A small proportion of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney cases occur in association with tuberous sclerosis (TS), which is a rare genetic disorder. However, many tumors are sporadic in nature and are often seen in middle-aged adults
  • Many angiomyolipomas are found incidentally while examining the individual for other medical conditions. The signs and symptoms depend upon the size of the tumors and it may include blood in urine, abdominal pain, and frequent infections affecting the urinary tract system. Large tumors are even known to cause chronic kidney failure
  • Typically, a surgical excision of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney with its entire removal is the treatment of choice. Recently, newer therapy involving FDA-approved medications may also be considered
  • The prognosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney is excellent with its complete removal, since it is a benign tumor. However, the prognosis also depends upon a set of factors that includes the severity of the signs and symptoms, age and overall health of the individual, response to treatment, and its association with tuberous sclerosis

Who gets Angiomyolipoma of Kidney? (Age and Sex Distribution)

  • The sporadic (non-syndromic) cases of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney are usually seen in the age group 35-50 years
  • When in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (syndromic cases), the age group in which the tumor is often manifested is 20-40 years
  • In rare cases, AML is observed in children too (mostly syndromic type)
  • According to some studies, sporadic cases have a predilection for females. No gender preferences are noted when the tumor is associated with tuberous sclerosis
  • No ethnic or racial preference is seen
  • Among biopsied renal tumors, studies show that AML constitute about 1% of them

What are the Risk Factors for Angiomyolipoma of Kidney? (Predisposing Factors)

Currently, no risk factors have been noted for the sporadic cases of Renal Angiomyolipomas. The sporadic cases are greater in number (around 80-90%) than cases associated with tuberous sclerosis (around 10-20%).

(Video) Take-home messages on renal angiomyolipomas

The risk factors for Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may include the following:

  • Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a risk factor for Renal Angiomyolipoma, and hence, a family history of TS can increase the risk. Tuberous sclerosis complex is an inherited genetic disorder that can cause the formation of other tumor types, such as astrocytomas, rhabdomyomas, phakomas, oncocytomas, and angiofibromas, at various body locations
  • In general, AML can also be associated with other syndromes/disorders including:
    • von Recklinghausen disease (neurofibromatosis type I)
    • von Hippel-Lindau disease
    • Sturge-Weber syndrome
    • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  • Some reports indicate that events causing an hormonal imbalance in the body, such as puberty and pregnancy in women, may be a risk factor

It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.

Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.

What are the Causes of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney? (Etiology)

The exact cause and mechanism of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney formation, in a majority of cases, is unknown. Solitary tumors are believed to be the result of sporadic mutations on TSC1/TSC2 genes, implying that they do not have a preceding family history of the condition.

  • Research has shown that the tumors arise from cells called perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC), which surrounds the blood vessels. Hence, angiomyolipoma (AML) is a type of a tumor known as a PEComa
  • Multiple angiomyolipomas are known to occur in a background of tuberous sclerosis (TS), which is a genetic condition. It may also occur when there is a positive family history of the condition
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by genetic alterations involving the TSC1 and TSC2 gene. In non-TS associated AML, the loss of heterozygosity on TSC1/TSC2 gene has been noted. Also, some reports indicate that mutations on RHEB gene are observed in sporadic (non-syndromic) cases
  • Some researchers believe that very small nodules with angiomyolipoma-like features occurring in the kidneys may be precursor lesions to AML. In many cases of Renal Angiomyolipoma, such small precursor lesions have been detected in the surrounding kidney tissue to the tumor. Recent studies have shown that such intraglomerular precursor nodules can be seen in both sporadic cases and in Renal Angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis. Further, such precursor nodules have also been noted in TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome
  • In general, syndromic AML is also associated with other genetic disorders such as von Recklinghausen disease, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  • Some research indicates that hormonal influence may play a role in AML formation for the following reasons:
    • The tumor is more often seen in women
    • It grows larger during pregnancy
    • The onset can be after puberty
    • And high progesterone receptor activity is present on microscopic examination
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and AML association: LAM is a lung condition that occurs in tuberous sclerosis. It is most frequently occurs in girls and young adult women. Studies have shown that LAM and AML of Kidney may be related to each other, since they have overlapping molecular and histological features

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney?

The signs and symptoms of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney depend on the size and location of the tumor. It can also vary from one individual to another. In general, small tumors are asymptomatic and large tumors (size greater than 4 cm) can cause signs and symptoms.

The signs and symptoms of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may include the following:

  • The angiomyolipoma can affect the cortex (peripheral portion) or medulla (central portion) of the kidney
  • They can also be present next to the kidney in the soft tissues of the retroperitoneum, with or without any connection to the kidney. In such cases, the tumor is known as retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma and not Renal Angiomyolipoma
  • The kidney symptoms may be caused by retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma due to mass effect (bulky tumors)
  • The tumor may be present as an abdominal mass. It is often well-defined and demarcated
  • It may be associated with frequent urinary tract infections, blood in urine, increased blood pressure, and flank pain
  • Large tumors can severely affect the functioning of the kidney that is involved. Tumors growing to larger sizes can cause compression of adjoining organs and structures, but are not known infiltrate into them
  • Tumors tend to grow larger in size during pregnancy
  • In sporadic cases (when not associated with tuberous sclerosis), angiomyolipoma is usually single. Often with sporadic tumors, they tend to be larger and so pain may be observed
  • In a background of tuberous sclerosis, multiple tumors affecting both the kidneys may be seen. But with TS, tumors are known to be more asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally

The signs and symptoms of the underlying tuberous sclerosis disorder may include the presence of multiple tumors in several parts/organs of the body. Based on the body organ affected (excluding the kidney), the following signs and symptoms of tuberous sclerosis may be noted:

  • Brain - intellectual impairment, behavioral issues, learning difficulties, etc.
  • Heart - affecting blood circulation
  • Eye - white retinal patches
  • Skin - abnormal skin patches, reddish spots on the face
  • Lungs - cystic lesions in the lung due to lymphangioleiomyomatosis

How is Angiomyolipoma of Kidney Diagnosed?

It is important to note that a majority of tumors are sporadic, while a minority of the cases is associated with a syndrome (tuberous sclerosis). The diagnosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may involve the following tests and procedures:

  • Complete physical exam with evaluation of medical history: If angiomyolipoma is associated with tuberous sclerosis; then, the signs and symptoms of tuberous sclerosis may be noted. This can also help the healthcare provider to suspect the condition
  • Plain X-ray of the abdomen
  • CT or CAT scan with contrast of the abdomen usually shows a well-defined mass. This radiological procedure creates detailed 3-dimensional images of structures inside the body
  • MRI scans of the abdomen: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field to create high-quality pictures of certain parts of the body, such as tissues, muscles, nerves, and bones. These high-quality pictures may reveal the presence of the tumor
  • Ultrasound scan of the abdomen
  • Urine analysis to check for the presence of blood cells
  • Kidney function test
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): A dye is injected into the blood vessels and the image of kidney structure is obtained
  • Vascular angiographic studies of the tumor

Note: CT, MRI scans of the affected kidney can usually help diagnose angiomyolipoma in the kidneys. An ultrasound imaging or CT scan studies can reveal the presence of the tumor due to its high-fat content pattern.

Invasive diagnostic procedures such as:

  • Laparoscopy: A special device is inserted through a small hole into the abdomen, to visually examine it. If necessary, a tissue sample is obtained for further analysis. Exploration of the abdomen using a laparoscope is called ‘exploratory laparoscopy’
  • Laparotomy: The abdomen is opened through an incision for examination, and if required, a biopsy sample obtained. Exploration of the abdomen using laparotomy procedure is called ‘exploratory laparotomy’

Although the above modalities can be used to make an initial diagnosis, a tissue biopsy of the tumor is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis to begin treatment. The tissue for diagnosis can be procured in multiple different ways which include:

  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the kidney tumor: A FNA biopsy may not be helpful, because one may not be able to visualize the different morphological areas of the tumor. Hence, a FNA biopsy as a diagnostic tool has certain limitations, and an open surgical biopsy is preferred
  • Core biopsy of the kidney tumor
  • Open biopsy of the kidney tumor

Tissue biopsy:

  • A tissue biopsy of the tumor is performed and sent to a laboratory for a pathological examination. A pathologist examines the biopsy under a microscope. After putting together clinical findings, special studies on tissues (if needed) and with microscope findings, the pathologist arrives at a definitive diagnosis. Examination of the biopsy under a microscope by a pathologist is considered to be gold standard in arriving at a conclusive diagnosis
  • Biopsy specimens are studied initially using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. The pathologist then decides on additional studies depending on the clinical situation
  • The tumors may have varying proportions of blood vessels, smooth muscle, and fat cells, when examined by a pathologist under a microscope
  • Sometimes, the pathologist may perform special studies, which may include immunohistochemical stains, molecular testing, and very rarely, electron microscopic studies to assist in the diagnosis

A differential diagnosis, to eliminate other tumor types is considered, before arriving at a conclusion.

(Video) Case of the Week: Renal Angiomyolipoma

  • When an angiomyolipoma occurs in the kidney, the possibility of a renal carcinoma should be ruled out
  • Renal Angiomyolipoma is also known to occur with kidney cancer and oncocytoma (a benign/malignant tumor) affecting the same kidney. Hence, finding a Renal Angiomyolipoma should prompt a closer examination of the rest of the kidney to detect undiagnosed small-sized kidney cancers. This can be performed using detailed imaging studies
  • If the proportion of smooth muscles are more in a Renal Angiomyolipoma, then a leiomyoma should be ruled out

Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.

What are the possible Complications of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney?

The complications of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may include:

  • Large tumor masses may get secondarily infected with bacteria or fungus
  • Stress and anxiety due to a concern of kidney cancer
  • If bleeding occurs in the tumor suddenly, it can cause retroperitoneal hemorrhage, which can result in large blood loss leading to severe shock. This is a potentially life-threatening complication requiring emergency care. In this situation, the signs and symptoms could be nausea, vomiting, back pain, sudden drop in blood pressure, and palpitations. This clinical condition is termed Wunderlich syndrome
  • The presence of kidney cysts and more than one AML tumors in kidney can cause kidney failure, due to compression of the kidney tissue
  • Chronic renal failure affecting kidney function, if tumors are large; especially when the condition is bilateral (affecting both kidneys)
  • Renal Angiomyolipoma can invade into the renal vein. But, this is only a growth of the tumor and not a sign of malignancy or metastasis
  • Damage to the muscles, vital nerves, and blood vessels, during surgery
  • Post-surgical infection at the wound site is a potential complication
  • Research has not conclusively proven that angiomyolipoma can turn malignant. Although, some cases of sarcoma developing from AML (not associated with tuberous sclerosis) have been noted

How is Angiomyolipoma of Kidney Treated?

The treatment options vary from one individual to another. The treatment measures for Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may include the following:

  • Majority of asymptomatic tumors are not surgically removed: The healthcare provider may recommend a ‘wait and watch’ approach for small-sized tumors presenting mild signs and symptoms, after a diagnosis of angiomyolipoma is made
  • Surgical intervention with complete excision can result in a complete cure. It can also help reduce the chances of tumor recurrence

The surgical treatment methods for Kidney Angiomyolipomas may include:

  • Endoscopic surgery
  • Nephron-sparing surgery
  • Partial or complete nephrectomy
  • Tumor embolization is a possible treatment option. Here the blood supply to the tumor is blocked resulting in its shrinkage or death

A partial or complete nephrectomy may be considered, when large-sized tumors are noted in the kidneys. In severe cases of bilateral tumors, kidney transplantation may be necessary.

  • Newer medical treatments; recently FDA-approved medications may also be used
  • A kidney dialysis may be required, if the kidney function is severely compromised due to renal failure
  • Prompt diagnosis and emergency treatment of any abdominal (retroperitoneal) bleeding due to the tumor should be immediately considered
  • Treatment of the underlying or associated conditions, if any
  • Post-operative care is important: A minimum activity level is ensured, until the surgical wound heals
  • Follow-up care with regular screening may be recommended by the healthcare provider

How can Angiomyolipoma of Kidney be Prevented?

Current medical research has not established a method of preventing both syndromic and non-syndromic forms of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney. However, in case it is associated with genetic disorders, such as tuberous sclerosis, then the following may be considered:

  • Genetic testing of the expecting parents (and related family members) and prenatal diagnosis (molecular testing of the fetus during pregnancy) may help in understanding the risks better during pregnancy
  • If there is a family history of the condition, then genetic counseling will help assess risks before planning for a child
  • Active research is currently being performed to explore the possibilities for treatment and prevention of inherited and acquired genetic disorders such as tuberous sclerosis
  • Regular medical screening at periodic intervals with tests and physical examinations are strongly recommended

What is the Prognosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney? (Outcomes/Resolutions)

  • The prognosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney depends upon the severity of the signs and symptoms. It also depends upon the overall health of the individual, association with tuberous sclerosis, and response to therapy
  • Typically, individuals with small-sized tumors have a better prognosis than those with larger-sized tumors (greater than 4 cm in size). Also, those with non-syndromic (sporadic) tumors have a comparatively better prognosis than individuals with tumors that are seen in association with a genetic disorder (syndromic)
  • In most cases, the prognosis of small-sized solitary tumors is excellent with surgical intervention or appropriate treatment, since these are benign tumors
  • Complications are seen in some cases leading to severely affected kidney function, even causing fatalities. This can occur from hemorrhage of tumor into the retroperitoneal space - mostly with tumors larger than 4 cm. Individuals with retroperitoneal hemorrhage may have a worse prognosis, if the condition is not treated immediately as a medical emergency
  • In pregnant women, such hemorrhage from AML tumors can be significantly serious affecting both the mother and child

Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Angiomyolipoma of Kidney:

Angiomyolipoma can occur at various locations in the body, such as the soft tissue, uterus, fallopian tube, spermatic cord, penis, liver, and lung.

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?

American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
1510 H Street NW, Suite 800 Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: (202) 640–4660
Fax: (202) 637–9793

National Kidney Foundation
30 E. 33rd Street New York, NY 10016
Phone: (800) 622-9010
Patient Information Help Line: (855) NKF-CARES (1-855-653-2273)
Fax: (212) 689-9261

American Cancer Society (ACS)
1599 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30329-4251
Toll-Free: (800) 227-2345
TTY: (866) 228-4327

(Video) Angiomyolipoma of the kidney - Pathology mini tutorial

References and Information Sources used for the Article:

Holger Moch, Peter A. Humphrey, Thomas M. Ulbright, Victor E. Reuter (Eds); WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs (4th edition), IARC; Lyon 2016. (accessed on 10/30/16) (accessed on 10/30/16) (accessed on 10/30/16) (accessed on 10/30/16) (accessed on 10/30/16)

Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:

Singh, J. I., Gupta, A. K., Nadar, D., & Singhal, M. K. (2013). Kidney transplantation after ex vivo excision of an angiomyolipoma from a living related kidney donor. Indian Journal of Transplantation, 7(4), 117-119.

(Video) Angiomyolipoma, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.


Jayaprakash, P. G., Mathews, S., Azariah, M. B., & Babu, G. (2014). Pure epitheliod perivascular epitheloid cell tumor (epitheliod angiomyolipoma) of kidney: Case report and literature review. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 10(2), 404.

Roozbeh, J., Eshraghian, A., Geramizadeh, B., Nikeghbalian, S., Salehipour, M., & Malek-Hosseini, S. A. (2012). A rare incidence of angiomyolipoma after kidney transplantation. Iranian journal of kidney diseases, 6(4), 311.

Fernandez-Pello, S., Gonzalez Rodriguez, I., Villamil, L. R., Perez-Carral, J. R., Menendez, C. L., Caveda, P., & Cuervo, J. (2013). Laparoscopic management of right renal angiomyolipoma with involvement of the inferior vena cava: case report and review of the literature. Scandinavian journal of urology, 47(4), 340-344.

Sethi, D., Ahluvalia, C., Khetarpal, S., & Arora, H. (2012). Renal angiomyolipoma: A radiopathological diagnosis. Clinical cancer investigation journal, 1(2), 100.

Stamatiou, K. N., Moschouris, H., Christopoulos, G., Tzamarias, S., Geropappas, E., Zygogiannis, E., & Labrakopoulos, A. (2015). Is it possible for combined interventional treatment to treat giant renal angiomyolipomas?. Hellenic Urology, 25(4).

Eijkemans, M. J., van der Wal, W., Reijnders, L. J., Roes, K. C., van Doorn, S. B. V. W., Pelletier, C., ... & Zonnenberg, B. (2015). Long-term follow-up assessing renal angiomyolipoma treatment patterns, morbidity, and mortality: an observational study in tuberous sclerosis complex patients in the Netherlands. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 66(4), 638-645.

Approved by: Krish Tangella MD, MBA, FCAP

First uploaded: Nov. 15, 2016

Last updated: May 15, 2018

(Video) Angiomyolipoma - an Osmosis preview


Is angiomyolipoma in kidney serious? ›

A renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a type of tumor in your kidney. Almost all are benign (noncancerous), but they can hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening. A tumor occurs when cells grow and divide more than they should. A renal angiomyolipoma is made of blood vessels, muscle cells and fat.

How serious is a angiomyolipoma? ›

How serious is an angiomyolipoma? Many people with angiomyolipoma don't know they have the condition. If the tumor grows larger than about 4 centimeters (about the size of a walnut), it could cause bleeding (hemorrhage). This bleeding can be life-threatening if it's not treated.

What is the treatment for angiomyolipoma? ›

Current management options include observation, embolization, and partial or total nephrectomy. Recommendations for treatment are usually based on the patient's symptoms or the size of the lesion.

Can angiomyolipoma affect kidney function? ›

Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are benign fat-containing tumors that affect the kidneys. AMLs associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are often larger, usually bilateral, and grow more rapidly than AMLs in sporadic cases.

Should a Angiolipoma be removed? ›

Angiolipomas don't go away on their own. However, unless an angiolipoma causes pain or discomfort, you don't have to treat it. Surgery (excision or extirpation) removes painful or uncomfortable angiolipomas. Most angiolipomas are just below your skin, so surgically removing them isn't difficult.

Should I be concerned about angiomyolipoma? ›

How serious is an angiomyolipoma? Many people with angiomyolipoma don't know they have the condition. If the tumor grows larger than about 4 centimeters (about the size of a walnut), it could cause bleeding (hemorrhage). This bleeding can be life-threatening if it's not treated.

Can angiomyolipomas turn cancerous? ›

Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign kidney tumor, which is characterized by the presence of mature or immature fat tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscles. However, there is a rare possibility of transformation to a malignancy. This transformation could be toward sarcoma.

What should I avoid with angiomyolipoma? ›

Healthy Lifestyle Changes With Renal Angiomyolipoma

Refraining from salt, potassium is a must. A stressed kidney, in general, is better off without foods such as potato, salt, fast food, processed food, various kind of meat etc. The dietary restriction gets waived off by the doctor once the patient is cured.

Can an angiomyolipoma become malignant? ›

Angiomyolipoma (AML) is now recognized as a clonal mesenchymal neoplasm which stains strongly for melanoma-associated markers (HMB-45). This tumor most commonly arises in the kidney. Although typical renal AML is a benign lesion, few cases of epithelioid AML (EAML) develop malignant clinical courses.

What is the most serious complication of angiomyolipoma? ›

Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a common benign tumor of the kidney. The main complication of AML is retroperitoneal hemorrhage caused by AML rupture, which can be severe and life threatening.

Should a benign kidney tumor be removed? ›

Because benign kidney tumors do not require removal, a kidney specialist known as a urologist may order additional tests to help determine if a tumor is benign before treatment decisions are made. These tests may include imaging tests or a biopsy, in which a sample of the tumor is taken with a needle.

Can angiomyolipoma burst? ›

Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is an infrequent tumor that, in most cases, follows a benign course and has clearly defined radiological and histological characteristics. Enlarging AMLs can develop micro and macro-aneurysms that can rupture. This can be sudden and painful, and occasionally life threatening.

Can renal angiomyolipoma disappear? ›

The outlook for people with angiomyolipoma is generally good when symptoms do not appear and the tumor size remains small. In cases where an angiomyolipoma causes a hemorrhage, the outlook is variable. People may require emergency embolization to treat the bleeding.

Can angiomyolipoma kidney cause pain? ›

Patients with renal angiomyolipoma often have flank pain, a palpable tender mass, abdominal discomfort, fever, and gross hematuria. Hemorrhage occurs in 15% of angiomyolipomas and in 50% to 60% of tumors larger than 4 cm.

Are angiomyolipomas common? ›

How common is angiomyolipoma in kidneys? Angiomyolipomas occur in less than 1% of the general population. But they are the most common benign kidney tumor. And they're very common in people with tuberous sclerosis complex — more than half of people with TSC develop angiomyolipomas.

What medication is used for renal Angiomyolipoma? ›

AFINITOR® (everolimus) Tablets is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) not requiring immediate surgery.

What causes angiomyolipoma? ›

Whether associated with these diseases or sporadic, Angiomyolipomas are caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which govern cell growth and proliferation. They are composed of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and fat cells. Large Angiomyolipomas can be treated with embolisation.

What size is angiomyolipoma in kidney? ›

Tumor size in the ruptured angiomyolipomas ranged from 4.8 to 16.5 cm (mean, 10.8 cm ± 5.1), while aneurysm size ranged from 5 to 36 mm (mean, 15.6 mm ± 10.4).

Is renal angiomyolipoma hereditary? ›

Nonmalignant renal tumors, including oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma, are also associated with specific hereditary renal tumor syndromes. Patients with hereditary renal tumor syndromes are at an increased risk for the development of additional renal tumors, even when the original tumor has been resected.

What are the symptoms of a benign kidney tumor? ›

If you have symptoms, they usually include:
  • Blood in your pee (hematuria).
  • Pain between your ribs and hips (flank) to the touch.
  • Pain in your lower back.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Anemia.
Oct 21, 2022

What are the symptoms of angiomyolipoma rupture? ›

The most common symptoms are abdominal-flank pain, a palpable mass and hematuria.

How fast do angiomyolipomas grow? ›

The management of classic angiomyolipoma is conservative; most do not grow and remain asymptomatic. However, some grow slowly, typically at a rate of 5% per year or 0.19 cm per year [39, 40]. Some angiomyolipomas, particularly those larger than 4 cm, may bleed spontaneously [39, 40].

How serious is a benign kidney tumor? ›

A non-cancerous (benign) tumour of the kidney is a growth that does not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Non-cancerous tumours are not usually life-threatening. They are typically removed with surgery and do not usually come back (recur).

Is an angiomyolipoma a kidney stone? ›

An angiomyolipoma is generally a benign lesion of the kidney and does not require treatment. If you are having no pain, the small kidney stone does not require treatment. You should drink plenty of water and follow a low salt diet in order to keep the small kidney stone from growing in size.

Can angiomyolipoma cause weight loss? ›

Nonspecific features like fever and weight loss have also been reported [4]. Angiomyolipomas have a characteristic polar location within the renal parenchyma. The tumors are usually small (less than 1 cm in diameter), single and unilateral, though multiple bilateral lesions may be seen.

What foods are good for kidney repair? ›

The Best Foods for Kidney Health
  • Dark leafy greens. Dark leafy green vegetables such as kale, spinach, chard, and collard greens are loaded with vitamins A and C, calcium, and many other important minerals. ...
  • Berries. ...
  • Cranberries. ...
  • Sweet potatoes. ...
  • Olive oil. ...
  • Fatty fish. ...
  • Cabbage.

Is angiomyolipoma a aneurysm? ›

Abstract. Large aneurysms occurring in renal angiomyolipomas (AML) may be encountered. When present, they have a higher propensity to hemorrhage and cause catastrophic intratumoral and perirenal hemorrhages. They also tend to occur more in tuberous sclerosis-associated AML rather than in the sporadic form.

Can angiomyolipoma be misdiagnosed? ›

A literature search revealed few case reports where angiomyolipoma was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma [7-9]. It is essential to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma as epithelioid angiomyolipomas less than 4cm in size are treated conservatively.

What imaging is best for angiomyolipoma? ›

MRI does not radiate and is preferred to CT for the surveillance of patients with known angiomyolipomas. Regular radiological monitoring is recommended to assess the risk of bleeding and the presence of tumours other than angiomyolipomas.

Can angiomyolipoma cause bloating? ›

Nineteen out of 53 (36%) of those with angiomyolipoma presented due to symptoms. In 11 patients this was abdominal or flank pain, in three haematuria, in three palpable mass and in two abdominal bloating.

What causes an angiomyolipoma to bleed? ›

The main complication of AMLs is hemorrhage, which is related to the tumour size, increased vascularity and abnormal thick-walled vessels that are predisposed to the formation of microaneuryms and bleeding. AMLs larger than 4 cm in diameter increase the risk for hemorrhage [3].

How can you tell the difference between angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma? ›

Fat-rich AML should be differentiated from fat-containing RCC if this situation is rarely encountered. A small amount of fat relative to a large tumor, calcification, or necrosis is more suggestive of RCC than of AML. In exceptional cases, biopsy is recommended if these findings are detected.

Can angiomyolipoma become cancerous? ›

Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign kidney tumor, which is characterized by the presence of mature or immature fat tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscles. However, there is a rare possibility of transformation to a malignancy. This transformation could be toward sarcoma.

Can angiomyolipoma be cancerous? ›

A benign (noncancer) tumor of fat and muscle tissue that usually is found in the kidney. Angiomyolipomas rarely cause symptoms, but may bleed or grow large enough to be painful or cause kidney failure.

Can an Angiolipoma burst? ›

Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is an infrequent tumor that, in most cases, follows a benign course and has clearly defined radiological and histological characteristics. Enlarging AMLs can develop micro and macro-aneurysms that can rupture. This can be sudden and painful, and occasionally life threatening.

Why does angiomyolipoma cause pain? ›

Most people with benign Angiomyolipomas do not show signs or have symptoms. However, some people can have symptoms If the dilated blood vessels in an Angiomyolipoma rupture, this is called a retroperitoneal hemorrhage. This can cause pain in the back, nausea and vomiting.

What causes Angiolipoma? ›

The exact cause of angiolipomas isn't known, but they may run in families. The condition is often seen in young adults between 20 and 30 years of age. Angiolipomas rarely occur in older adults or children. They're more common in men.


1. Prognosis of Myolipomas of Adrenal & Angiomyolipoma - Dr. Anantharaman Ramakrishnan
(Doctors' Circle World's Largest Health Platform)
2. Kidney tumor treatment without surgery | Renal angiomyolipoma | Dr. Gaurav Gangwani
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